Your thoughts construct patterns like scaffolding in your mind.

Your thoughts construct patterns like scaffolding in your mind. You are really

etching chemical patterns. In most cases, people get stuck in those patterns,

just like grooves in a record, and they never get out of them.

 

I’ll always stay connected with Apple. I hope that throughout my life I’ll sort of

have the thread of my life and the thread of Apple weave in and out of each

other, like a tapestry. There may be a few years when I’m not there,

but I’ll always come back. . . .

Andy Hertzfeld had taken a leave of absence after the Macintosh came out in

1984. He needed to recharge his batteries and get away from his supervisor,

Bob Belleville, whom he didn’t like. One day he learned that Jobs had given out

bonuses of up to $50,000 to engineers on the Macintosh team. So he went to

Jobs to ask for one. Jobs responded that Belleville had decided not to give the

bonuses to people who were on leave. Hertzfeld later heard that the decision

had actually been made by Jobs, so he confronted him. At first Jobs equivocated,

then he said, “Well, let’s assume what you are saying is true. How does that

change things?” Hertzfeld said that if Jobs was withholding the bonus as a reason

for him to come back, then he wouldn’t come back as a matter

of principle. Jobs relented, but it left Hertzfeld with a bad taste.

If you want to live your life in a creative way, as an artist, you have to not

look back too much. You have to be willing to take whatever

you’ve done and whoever you were and throw them away.

The more the outside world tries to reinforce an image of you, the harder

it is to continue to be an artist, which is why a lot of times, artists have to say,

“Bye. I have to go. I’m going crazy and I’m getting out of here.” And they go

and hibernate somewhere. Maybe later they re-emerge a little differently.

With each of those statements, Jobs seemed to have a premonition that his

life would soon be changing. Perhaps the thread of his life would indeed weave

in and out of the thread of Apple’s. Perhaps it was time to throw away some

of what he had been.

 

Perhaps it was time to say

“Bye, I have to go,”

and then reemerge later,

thinking differently.

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One table featured software moguls, including Bill Gates and

One table featured software moguls, including Bill Gates and Mitch Kapor.

Another had old friends such as Elizabeth Holmes, who brought as her date

a woman dressed in a tuxedo. Andy Hertzfeld and Burrell Smith had rented

 

tuxes and wore floppy tennis shoes, which made it all the more memorable

when they danced to the Strauss waltzes played by the San Francisco

Symphony Orchestra.

 

Ella Fitzgerald provided the entertainment, as Bob Dylan had declined. She sang

mainly from her standard repertoire, though occasionally tailoring a song like

“The Girl from Ipanema” to be about the boy from Cupertino. When she asked

for some requests, Jobs called out a few. She concluded with

a slow rendition of “Happy Birthday.”

Sculley came to the stage to propose a toast to “technology’s foremost visionary.”

Wozniak also came up and presented Jobs with a framed copy of the Zaltair hoax

from the 1977 West Coast Computer Faire, where the Apple II had been introduced.

The venture capitalist Don Valentine marveled at the change in the decade since

that time. “He went from being a Ho Chi Minh look-alike, who said never trust

anyone over thirty, to a person who gives himself a fabulous thirtieth

birthday with Ella Fitzgerald,” he said.

Many people had picked out special gifts for a person w

ho was not easy to shop for.

Debi Coleman, for example, found a first edition of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Last

Tycoon. But Jobs, in an act that was odd yet not out of character, left all of the

gifts in a hotel room. Wozniak and some of the Apple veterans, who did not take

to the goat cheese and salmon mousse that was served, met after

the party and went out to eat at a Denny’s.

“It’s rare that you see an artist in his 30s or 40s able to really contribute something

amazing,” Jobs said wistfully to the writer David Sheff, who published a long and

intimate interview in Playboy the month he turned thirty. “Of course, there are

some people who are innately curious, forever little kids in their

awe of life, but they’re rare.” The interview touched on

 

many subjects, but Jobs’s

most poignant ruminations

were about growing old

and facing the future:

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Jobs’s discomfort, with both the ad and the situation at

Jobs’s discomfort, with both the ad and the situation at Apple in

general, was on display when he traveled to New York in January to

do another round of one-on-one press interviews. Andy Cunningham,

 

from Regis McKenna’s firm, was in charge of hand-holding and logistics at the

Carlyle. When Jobs arrived, he told her that his suite needed to be completely

redone, even though it was 10 p.m. and the meetings were to begin the next day.

The piano was not in the right place; the strawberries were the wrong type.

 

But his biggest objection was that he didn’t like the flowers. He wanted calla lilies.

“We got into a big fight on what a calla lily is,” Cunningham recalled. “I know what

they are, because I had them at my wedding, but he insisted on having a different

type of lily and said I was ‘stupid’ because I didn’t know what a real calla lily was.” So

Cunningham went out and, this being New York, was able to find a place open at

midnight where she could get the lilies he wanted. By the time they got the room

rearranged, Jobs started objecting to what she was wearing. “That suit’s disgusting,”

he told her. Cunningham knew that at times he just simmered with undirected anger,

so she tried to calm him down. “Look, I know you’re angry, and I know how you feel,” she said.

“You have no fucking idea how I feel,” he shot back, “no fucking idea what it’s like to be me.”

Thirty Years Old

Turning thirty is a milestone for most people, especially those of the generation

that proclaimed it would never trust anyone over that age. To celebrate his own

thirtieth, in February 1985, Jobs threw a lavishly formal but also playful—black tie

and tennis shoes—party for one thousand in the ballroom of the St. Francis Hotel in

San Francisco. The invitation read, “There’s an old Hindu saying that goes, ‘In the first

30 years of your life, you make your

habits. For the last 30

years of your life,

your habits make you.’

Come help me celebrate mine.

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Nevertheless Jobs and Sculley bent to the agency’s entreaties and

Nevertheless Jobs and Sculley bent to the agency’s entreaties and ran the commercial

during the Super Bowl. They went to the game together at Stanford Stadium with Sculley’s

wife, Leezy (who couldn’t stand Jobs), and Jobs’s new girlfriend, Tina Redse. When the

 

commercial was shown near the end of the fourth quarter of a dreary game, the fans

watched on the overhead screen and had little reaction. Across the country, most of the

response was negative. “It insulted the very people Apple was trying to reach,” the

 

president of a market research firm told Fortune. Apple’s marketing manager suggested

afterward that the company might want to buy an ad in the Wall Street Journal apologizing.

Jay Chiat threatened that if Apple did that his agency would buy the

facing page and apologize for the apology.

 

America by running that,” Debi Coleman yelled at Jobs when she saw the ad. At the marketing meetings

, she stood up to make her point about how much she hated it. “I literally put a resignation letter on his

desk. I wrote it on my Mac. I thought it was an affront to corporate managers.

We were just beginning to get a toehold with desktop publishing.”

 

Both Gassée and Negroponte tell tales of him pining over women while there.

Falling

After the burst of excitement that accompanied the release of Macintosh, its sales

began to taper off in the second half of 1984. The problem was a fundamental one:

It was a dazzling but woefully slow and underpowered computer, and no amount

of hoopla could mask that. Its beauty was that its user interface looked like a sunny

playroom rather than a somber dark screen with sickly green pulsating letters and surly

command lines. But that led to its greatest weakness: A character on a text-based display

took less than a byte of code, whereas when the Mac drew a letter, pixel by pixel in any

elegant font you wanted, it required twenty or thirty times more memory. The Lisa

handled this by shipping with more than 1,000K RAM, whereas the Macintosh made do with 128K.

Another problem was the lack of an internal hard disk drive. Jobs had called Joanna Hoffman

a “Xerox bigot” when she fought for such a storage device. He insisted that the Macintosh

have just one floppy disk drive. If you wanted to copy data, you could end up with a new

form of tennis elbow from having to swap floppy disks in and out of the single drive. In addition,

the Macintosh lacked a fan, another example of Jobs’s dogmatic stubbornness. Fans, he felt,

detracted from the calm of a computer. This caused many component failures and earned the

Macintosh the nickname “the beige toaster,” which did not enhance its popularity. It was so

seductive that it had sold well enough for the first few months, but when people became more

aware of its limitations,

 

sales fell. As

The reality distortion

field can serve as a spur,

but then reality itself hits.”

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The dark mood was evident in the ad that was developed

The dark mood was evident in the ad that was developed in January 1985,

which was supposed to reprise the anti-IBM sentiment of the resonant “1984”

ad. Unfortunately there was a fundamental difference: The first ad had ended on

 

a heroic, optimistic note, but the storyboards presented by Lee Clow and Jay

Chiat for the new ad, titled “Lemmings,” showed dark-suited, blindfolded corporate

managers marching off a cliff to their death. From the beginning both Jobs and

 

Sculley were uneasy. It didn’t seem as if it would convey a positive or glorious image of

Apple, but instead would merely insult every manager who had bought an IBM.

 

It was on this trip that Jobs first got to know Jean-Louis Gassée, Apple’s manager in France.

Gassée was among the few to stand up successfully to Jobs on the trip. “He has his own

way with the truth,” Gassée later remarked. “The only way to deal with him was to out-bully him.”

When Jobs made his usual threat about cutting down on France’s allocations if Gassée didn’t

jack up sales projections, Gassée got angry. “I remember grabbing his lapel and telling him to

stop, and then he backed down. I used to be an angry man myself. I am a recovering assaholic.

So I could recognize that in Steve.”

In Italy, he took an instant dislike to Apple’s general manager, a soft rotund guy who had come

from a conventional business. Jobs told him bluntly that he was not impressed with his team

or his sales strategy. “You don’t deserve to be able to sell the Mac,” Jobs said coldly. But that

was mild compared to his reaction to the restaurant the hapless manager had chosen. Jobs

demanded a vegan meal, but the waiter very elaborately proceeded to dish out a sauce filled

with sour cream. Jobs got so nasty that Hoffman had to threaten him. She whispered that if he

didn’t calm down, she was going to pour her hot coffee on his lap.

The most substantive disagreements Jobs had on the European trip concerned sales forecasts.

Using his reality distortion field, Jobs was always pushing his team to come up with higher

projections. He kept threatening the European managers that he wouldn’t give them any

allocations unless they projected bigger forecasts. They insisted on being realistic, and

Hoffmann had to referee. “

 

By the end of the trip, my

whole body was

shaking uncontrollably,”

Hoffman recalled.

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At the end of 1984, with Lisa sales virtually nonexistent and

At the end of 1984, with Lisa sales virtually nonexistent and Macintosh sales falling

below ten thousand a month, Jobs made a shoddy, and atypical, decision out of

desperation. He decided to take the inventory of unsold Lisas, graft on a

 

Macintosh-emulation program, and sell them as a new product, the “Macintosh XL.”

Since the Lisa had been discontinued and would not be restarted, it was an unusual

instance of Jobs producing something that he did not believe in. “I was furious because

the Mac XL wasn’t real,” said Hoffman. “It was just to blow the excess Lisas out the door.

It sold well, and then we had to discontinue the horrible hoax, so I resigned.”

policeman left, Jobs got back on the road and accelerated to 100. “He absolutely believed

that the normal rules didn’t apply to him,” Rossmann marveled.

 

and its bright blue, yellow, and red machines, the factory floor “looked like an Alexander

Calder showcase,” said Coleman.

I’d go out to the factory, and I’d put on a white glove to check for du

st. I’d find it everywhere—on

machines, on the tops of the racks, on the floor. And I’d ask Debi to get it cleaned. I told her

I thought we should be able to eat off the floor of the factory. Well, this drove Debi up the wall.

She didn’t understand why. And I couldn’t articulate it back then. See, I’d been very influenced

by what I’d seen in Japan. Part of what I greatly admired there—and part of what we were lacking

in our factory—was a sense of teamwork and discipline. If we didn’t have the discipline to keep

that place spotless, then we weren’t going to have the discipline to keep all these machines running.

Things were not quite as sweet when Danielle Mitterrand toured the factory. The Cuba-admiring wife

of France’s socialist president Fran?ois Mitterrand asked a lot of questions, through her translator,

about the working conditions, while Jobs, who had grabbed Alain Rossmann to serve as his translator,

kept trying to explain the advanced robotics and technology. After Jobs talked about the just-in-time

production schedules, she asked about overtime pay. He was annoyed, so he described how automation

helped him keep down labor costs, a subject he knew would not delight her. “Is it hard work?” she asked.

“How much vacation time do they get?” Jobs couldn’t contain himself. “If she’s so interested in their welfare,”

he said to her translator, “tell her she can come work here any time.” The translator turned pale and said nothing.

After a moment Rossmann stepped in to say, in French, “M. Jobs says he thanks you for your visit and your

interest in the factory.” Neither Jobs nor Madame Mitterrand

 

knew what happened,

Rossmann recalled,

but her translator

looked very relieved.

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In response, Sculley effused about the joys of being Jobs’s partner

In response, Sculley effused about the joys of being Jobs’s partner for the past year, and he

concluded with a line that, for different reasons, everyone at the table found memorable.

“Apple has one leader,” he said, “Steve and me.” He looked across the room, caught Jobs’s

eye, and watched him smile. “It was as if we were communicating with each other,” Sculley

 

recalled. But he also noticed that Arthur Rock and some of the others were looking quizzical,

perhaps even skeptical. They were worried that Jobs was completely rolling him. They had hired

Sculley to control Jobs, and now it was clear that Jobs was the one in control. “Sculley was so

eager for Steve’s approval that he was unable to stand up to him,” Rock recalled.

the emotion as he built toward the present:

It is now 1984. It appears that IBM wants it all. Apple is perceived to be the only hope to offer

IBM a run for its money. Dealers, after initially welcoming IBM with open arms, now fear an

IBM-dominated and-controlled future and are turning back to Apple as the only force who

can ensure their future freedom. IBM wants it all, and is aiming its guns at its last obstacle to

industry control, Apple. Will Big Blue dominate the entire computer industry? The entire

information age? Was George Orwell right?

As he built to the climax, the audience went from murmuring to applauding to a frenzy of cheering

and chanting. But before they could answer the Orwell question, the auditorium went black and

the “1984” commercial appeared on the screen. When it was over, the entire audience was on its feet cheering.

With a flair for the dramatic, Jobs walked across the dark stage to a small table with a cloth bag on it.

“Now I’d like to show you Macintosh in person,” he said. He took out the computer, keyboard, and mouse,

hooked them together deftly, then pulled one of the new 3?-inch floppies from his shirt pocket.

The theme from Chariots of Fire began to play. Jobs held his breath for a moment, because the demo

had not worked well the night before. But this time it ran flawlessly. The word “MACINTOSH” scrolled

horizontally onscreen, then underneath it the words “Insanely great” appeared in script, as if being slowly

written by hand. Not used to such beautiful graphic displays, the audience quieted for a moment.

A few gasps could be heard. And then, in rapid succession, came a series of screen shots: Bill Atkinson’s

QuickDraw graphics package followed by displays of different fonts, documents, charts, drawings, a chess game,

 

a spreadsheet, and a

rendering of Steve Jobs

with a thought bubble

containing a Macintosh.

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One Sunday morning Jobs brought his father to see the factory.

One Sunday morning Jobs brought his father to see the factory. Paul Jobs had always been fastidious

about making sure that his craftsmanship was exacting and his tools in order, and his son was proud to

show that he could do the same. Coleman came along to give the tour. “Steve was, like, beaming,” she recalled.

 

“He was so proud to show his father this creation.” Jobs explained how everything worked, and his father seemed

truly admiring. “He kept looking at his father, who touched everything

and loved how clean and perfect everything looked.”

 

for example, that the Macintosh group could decide not to use Apple’s marketing team and instead create

one of its own.) No one else was in favor, but Jobs kept trying to ram it through. “People were looking

to me to take control, to get him to sit down and shut up, but I didn’t,” Sculley recalled. As the meeting

broke up, he heard someone whisper, “Why doesn’t Sculley shut him up?”

 

As chairman of the company, Jobs went onstage first to start the shareholders’ meeting. He

did so with his own form of an invocation. “I’d like to open the meeting,” he said, “with a

twenty-year-old poem by Dylan—that’s Bob Dylan.” He broke into a little smile, then looked

down to read from the second verse of “The Times They Are a-Changin’.” His voice was high-pitched

as he raced through the ten lines, ending with “For the loser now / Will be later to win /

For the times they are a-changin’.” That song was the anthem that kept the multimillionaire board

chairman in touch with his counterculture self-image. He had a bootleg copy of his favorite version,

which was from the live concert Dylan performed, with Joan Baez, on Halloween 1964

at Lincoln Center’s Philharmonic Hall.

Sculley came onstage to report on the company’s earnings, and the audience started to become restless

as he droned on. Finally, he ended with a personal note. “The most important thing that has happened

to me in the last nine months at Apple has been a chance to develop a friendship with

 

Steve Jobs,” he said.

“For me, the rapport

we have developed

means an awful lot.”

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When Jobs decided to build a state-of-the-art factory in Fremont to

When Jobs decided to build a state-of-the-art factory in Fremont to manufacture the Macintosh,

his aesthetic passions and controlling nature kicked into high gear. He wanted the machinery to

be painted in bright hues, like the Apple logo, but he spent so much time going over paint chips

that Apple’s manufacturing director, Matt Carter, finally just installed them in their usual beige and

 

gray. When Jobs took a tour, he ordered that the machines be repainted in the bright colors he

wanted. Carter objected; this was precision equipment, and repainting the machines could cause

problems. He turned out to be right. One of the most expensive machines, which got painted bright

 

blue, ended up not working properly and was dubbed “Steve’s folly.” Finally Carter quit. “It took so

much energy to fight him, and it was usually over something so pointless that finally I had enough,” he recalled.

be its salvation!” Levy pushed back. Rolling Stone was actually good, he said, and he asked Jobs

if he had read it recently. Jobs said that he had, an article about MTV that was “a piece of shit.”

Levy replied that he had written that article. Jobs, to his credit, didn’t back away from the assessment.

Instead he turned philosophical as he talked about the Macintosh. We are constantly benefiting from

advances that went before us and taking things that people before us developed, he said. “It’s a

wonderful, ecstatic feeling to create something that puts it back in the pool

of human experience and knowledge.”

Levy’s story didn’t make it to the cover. But in the future, every major product launch that Jobs was involved

in—at NeXT, at Pixar, and years later when he returned to Apple—would end

up on the cover of either Time, Newsweek, or Business Week.

January 24, 1984

Most of all, Jobs fretted about his presentation. Sculley fancied himself a good writer,

so he suggested changes in Jobs’s script. Jobs recalled being slightly annoyed, but their

relationship was still in the phase when he was lathering on flattery and stroking Sculley’s ego.

“I think of you just like Woz and Markkula,” he told Sculley. “You’re like one of the founders

of the company.

 

They founded the company,

but you and I are

founding the future.”

Sculley lapped it up.

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At Apple his status revived. Instead of seeking ways to curtail Jobs’

At Apple his status revived. Instead of seeking ways to curtail Jobs’s authority, Sculley

gave him more: The Lisa and Macintosh divisions were folded together, with Jobs in

charge. He was flying high, but this did not serve to make him more mellow. Indeed

 

there was a memorable display of his brutal honesty when he stood in front of the

combined Lisa and Macintosh teams to describe how they would be merged. His

Macintosh group leaders would get all of the top positions, he said, and a quarter

 

of the Lisa staff would be laid off. “You guys failed,” he said, looking directly at those

who had worked on the Lisa. “You’re a B team. B players. Too many people here are B or

C players, so today we are releasing some of you to have

the opportunity to work at our sister companies here in the valley.”

 

He never ended up warming to Sculley. “He was incredibly phony, a complete poseur,” he later said.

“He pretended to be interested in technology, but he wasn’t. He was a marketing guy, and that is

what marketing guys are: paid poseurs.”

Matters came to a head when Jobs visited New York in March 1983 and was able to convert the

courtship into a blind and blinding romance. “I really think you’re the guy,” Jobs said as they walked

through Central Park. “I want you to come and work with me. I can learn so much from you.” Jobs,

who had cultivated father figures in the past, knew just how to play to Sculley’s ego and insecurities.

It worked. “I was smitten by him,” Sculley later admitted. “Steve was one of the brightest people

I’d ever met. I shared with him a passion for ideas.”

Sculley, who was interested in art history, steered them toward the Metropolitan Museum for a little

test of whether Jobs was really willing to learn from others. “I wanted to see how well he could take

coaching in a subject where he had no background,” he recalled. As they strolled through the Greek

and Roman antiquities, Sculley expounded on the difference between the Archaic sculpture of the sixth

century B.C. and the Periclean sculptures a century later. Jobs, who loved to pick up historical nuggets

he never learned in college, seemed to soak it in. “I gained a sense that I could be a teacher to a

brilliant student,” Sculley recalled. Once again he indulged the conceit that they were alike: “I saw

in him a mirror image of my younger self. I, too, was impatient, stubborn, arrogant, impetuous.

My mind exploded with ideas, often to the

 

exclusion of everything else.

I, too, was intolerant of

those who couldn’t live

up to my demands.”

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